How Sweden compares
Sweden's skills snapshot
Developing the relevant skills
- How well does Sweden’s education system perform? In the 2009 PISA tests of 15-year-olds, Sweden performs above the OECD average in reading (rank 19), and slightly below the OECD average in mathematics (rank 26) and science (rank 29).1
- Does Sweden invest enough in education and training? Sweden spent 6.7% of its annual income on education in 2009, compared to the OECD average of 6.2%.2
- How much are Swedish citizens undertaking further education? In 2005, 69% of Swedish citizens participated in continuing non-formal education compared to the OECD average of 34%.3
- How equal is access to opportunities for further training in Sweden? In 2005, 90% of people aged 25-64 with a tertiary-level education participated in formal and/or non-formal education, compared with 56% for people in the same age group with below upper secondary education.4
- Should more be done to prevent skills shortages? Although the unemployment rate rose between 2007 and 2011,5 only 17% of Swedish employers reported recruitment difficulties in 2011, down from 32% in 2007.6,7
- Is there scope to improve skill utilisation in Sweden through strengthening labour force participation? In 2011, 91% of people aged between 25 and 54 were in the labour force, compared to an OECD average of 81%.8 The participation rate for prime-age women (aged 25-54) is well above the OECD average at 88% in 2011 (OECD average 71%).9
- To what extent are Sweden’s older workers supplying their skills to the labour market? In 2011, 76% of people aged 55 to 64 were in the labour force, compared to an OECD average of 58%.10
- How smooth is the transition from school to work for Sweden’s youth? The employment rate of Sweden’s youth in 2011 was 40.5%, compared with the OECD average of 39.3%.11 In 2011, the unemployment rate of Sweden’s youth was 22.9%, a relatively high rate compared with the OECD average of 16.2%.12
- Are the qualifications of Sweden’s workers well matched with the requirements of their jobs? In 2005, 31% of Sweden’s workers were over-qualified for their jobs (against theOECD average of 25%), and 20% were under-qualified (against the OECD average of 22%).13 Over-qualified (under-qualified) workers are those who have a higher (lower) qualification than the most common qualification of all other workers in the same occupation.
Key recommendations from the OECD Skills Strategy
A country can develop the relevant skills by encouraging and enabling people to learn throughout life; fostering international mobility of skilled people to fill skills gaps; and promoting cross-border skills policies.
A country can activate the supply of skills by encouraging people to offer their skills to the labour market and retaining skilled people in the labour market.
A country can put skills to effective use by creating a better match between people’s skills and the requirements of their job and increasing the demand for high-level skills.
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