How Estonia compares
Estonia's skills snapshot
Developing the relevant skills
- How well does Estonia’s education system perform? In the 2009 PISA tests of 15-year-olds, Estonia is among the top performing OECD countries in reading (rank 13), mathematics (rank 17) and science (rank 9).1
- Does Estonia invest enough in education and training? Estonia spent 6.3% of its annual income on education in 2009, compared to the OECD average of 6.2%.2
- How much are Estonian citizens undertaking further education? In 2008, 40% of Estonian citizens participated in continuing non-formal education compared to the OECD average of 34%.3
- How equal is access to opportunities for further training in Estonia? In 2007, 61% of people aged 25-64 with a tertiary-level education participated in formal and/or non-formal education, compared with 20% for people in the same age group with below upper secondary education.4
- Is there scope to improve skill utilisation in Estonia through strengthening labour force participation? In 2011, 88% of people aged between 25 and 54 were in the labour force, compared to an OECD average of 81%.5 The participation rate for prime-age women (aged 25-54) is above the OECD average at 85% in 2011 (OECD average 71%).6
- To what extent are Estonia’s older workers supplying their skills to the labour market? In 2011, 64.7% of people aged 55 to 64 were in the labour force, compared to an OECD average of 57.8%.7
- How smooth is the transition from school to work for Estonia’s youth? The employment rate of Estonian youth in 2011 was 31.5%, compared with the OECD average of 39.3%.8 In 2011, the unemployment rate of Estonia's youth was 22.3%, a relatively high rate compared with the OECD average of 16.2%.9
- Are the qualifications of Estonia’s workers well matched with the requirements of their jobs? In 2005, 24.5% of Estonia’s workers were over-qualified for their jobs (against theOECD average of 25%), and 30% were under-qualified (against the OECD average of 22%).10 Over-qualified (under-qualified) workers are those who have a higher (lower) qualification than the most common qualification of all other workers in the same occupation.
Key recommendations from the OECD Skills Strategy
A country can develop the relevant skills by encouraging and enabling people to learn throughout life; fostering international mobility of skilled people to fill skills gaps; and promoting cross-border skills policies.
A country can activate the supply of skills by encouraging people to offer their skills to the labour market and retaining skilled people in the labour market.
A country can put skills to effective use by creating a better match between people’s skills and the requirements of their job and increasing the demand for high-level skills.
For more information, see the: